Operational-level Grievance Mechanisms
Resources for teaching operational-level grievance mechanisms include:
- Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Accountability and Remedy Project III: Enhancing effectiveness of non-State-based grievance mechanisms in cases of business-related human rights abuse. Main Report.” UN Document: A/HRC/44/32, 2019. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Business/Pages/ARP_III.aspx and Accountability and Remedy Project III: Enhancing effectiveness of non-State-based grievance mechanisms in cases of business-related human rights abuse. Addendum: Explanatory Notes to Final Report.” UN Document: A/HRC/44/32/Add.1, 2019. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Business/Pages/ARP_III.aspx.
- Ruggie, John. “Protect, Respect and Remedy: A Framework for Business and Human Rights: Report of the Special Representative on Human Rights, Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises.” John Ruggie; UN Document: A/HRC/8/5, 2008. http://220.127.116.11/Ruggie-report-7-Apr-2008.pdf .
- Ruggie, John. “Business and Human Rights: Further steps toward the operationalization of the ‘protect, respect and remedy’ framework; Report of the Special Representative on Human Rights, Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises.” UN Document: A/HRC/14/27, 2010. http://www.reports-and-materials. org/Ruggie-report-2010.pdf.
- Ruggie, John. “Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework: Report of the Special Representative on Human Rights, Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises.” UN Document: A/HRC/17/31, 2011. Available at: http://www.business- humanrights.org/media/documents/ruggie/ ruggie-guiding-principles-21-mar-2011.pdf.
- United Nations, “Report of the Working Group on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises.” A/72/162, 2017, Available at: https://undocs.org/A/72/162.
- Aftab, Yusuf, and Audrey Mocle. Business and Human Rights as Law: Towards Justiciability of Rights, Involvement, and Remedy. New York: LexisNexis Canada, 2019.
- Bair, Jennifer and Jeremy Blasi. “An analysis of multiparty bargaining models for global supply chains.” Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 105, International Labour Organization: Geneva. 2019. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_protect/—protrav/—travail/documents/publication/wcms_655541.pdf
- Birchall, David. “Irremediable impacts and unaccountable contributors: the possibility of a trust fund for victims to remedy large-scale human rights impacts.” Australian Journal of Human Rights 25, no. 3 (2019): 428-447.
- de Búrca, Gráinne, Robert Keohane and Charles Sabel. “New Modes of Pluralist Global Governance”. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 45, no. 3 (2013): 723–786.
- Casanova, Gabriela, Carlos Lopez, and Sam Zarifi. “Some questions regarding Facebook’s oversight board and remediation of human rights impacts.” Opinio Juris, 03.03.2020. Accessed February 20, 2022. http://opiniojuris.org/2020/03/03/some-questions-regarding-facebooks-oversight-board-and-remediation-of-human-rights-impacts-part-i/.
- Catá Backer, Larry. “All roads to remedy”: Reflections on 2017 Report of the Working Group on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises (A/72/162).” Law at the End of the Day, 2020. Accessed February 10, 2022. https://lcbackerblog.blogspot.com/2017/10/all-roads-to-remedy-reflections-on-2017.html
- Cedillo, Cristina. “Better Access to Remedy in Company-Community Conflicts in the Field of CSR.” Dovenschmidt Quarterly 4, no. 4 (2013): 198-215.
- The Center for International Law & Policy Operational Grievance Mechanism Research Project. “Fall 2019 Report.” Operational-Level Grievance Mechanism Research Project, New England Law, Boston, 2019. Accessed February 10, 2022. https://www.nesl.edu/docs/default-source/faculty-files/center-for-international-law-and-policy-operational-grievance-mechanisms-fall-2019-report.pdf.
- The Center for International Law & Policy Operational Grievance Mechanism Research Project. “Trends and General Practices of Company Operational-Level Grievance Mechanisms.” Operational-Level Grievance Mechanism Research Project, New England Law, Boston, 2021. Accessed February 10, 2022. https://www.nesl.edu/docs/default-source/default-document-library/ogm-project-trend-analysis-spring-2021.pdf?sfvrsn=74967ca0_2.
- The Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining. “Mining industry perspectives on handling community grievances: Summary and analysis of industry interviews.” the University of Queensland, Australia, 2009. Accessed February 10, 2022. https://www.hks.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/centers/mrcbg/programs/cri/files/other_mining_industry_perspectives_on_handling_community_grievances.pdf.
- CSR Europe. “Assessing the Effectiveness of Company Grievance Mechanisms.” CSR Europe’s Management of Complaints Assessment (MOC-A) Results, 2013. Accessed 22 February 2022. https://teachbhr.files.wordpress.com/2022/08/4bb36-moc-areport.pdf.
- Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative. “Rights-Compatible Grievance Mechanisms: A Guidance Tool for Companies and Their Stakeholders.” Cambridge: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Boston, 2008. Accessed February 10, 2022. https://www.globalcompact.de/migrated_files/wAssets/docs/Menschenrechte/Ocai/workingpaper_41_rights-compatible_grievance_mechanisms_may2008fnl.pdf.
- Dawkins, Cedric. “Agonistic Pluralism and Stakeholder Engagement.” Business Ethics Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2015): 1-28.
- Earthrights International, & SOMO. “Community-driven OGMs – Discussion Paper for a New Model.” 2015. Accessed 22 February 2022. https://media.business-humanrights.org/media/documents/files/documents/OGM_Discussion_Paper_-_ERI_SOMO_-_Mar_2015.pdf.
- Ethical Trading Initiative. “NGO Leadership in Grievance Mechanisms and Access to Remedy in Global Supply Chains.” ETI: London, 2017. Accessed February 10, 2022. https://www.ethicaltrade.org/sites/default/files/shared_resources/ngo_leadership_in_gms _and_remedy_paper._eti_revised_feb_2018.pdf.
- Ethical Trading Initiative. “Access to remedy Practical guidance for companies.” ETI: London, 2019. Accessed February 10, 2022. https://www.ethicaltrade.org/sites/default/files/shared_resources/Access%20to%20remedy_0.pdf.
- Fine, Janice. “Co-Production: Bringing Together the Unique Capabilities of Government and Society for Stronger Labor Standards Enforcement”, LiftFund, 2015, Accessed 10 February. http://theliftfund.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/LIFTReportCoproductionOct_ExecSumm-rf_4.pdf.
- Genovese, Kristen. “Access to remedy: non-judicial grievance mechanisms.” In Business and Human Rights – From Principles to Practice, edited by Dorothée Baumann-Pauly, and Justine Nolan, 266-275. New York: Routledge, 2016.
- Giannini, Tyler. “Political Legitimacy and Private Governance of Human Rights: Community-Business Social Contracts and Constitutional Moments.” In Human Rights, Democracy, and Legitimacy in a World of Disorder, edited by Silja Voeneky and Gerald Neuman, 209-233. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.
- Grama, Benjamin. Determining Criteria to Evaluate Outcomes of Businesses’ Provision of Remedy: Applying a Human Rights-Based Approach. Business and Human Rights Journal 2, no.1 (2017): 55-85.
- Grama, Benjamin. “Company-Administered Grievance Processes For External Stakeholders: A Means For Effective Remedy, Community Relations, or Private Power?” Wisconsin International Law Journal 39, no.1 (2022): 71-143.
- Haines, Fiona. and Kate Macdonald. “Nonjudicial business regulation and community access to remedy. Regulation & Governance.” Regulation and Governance 14, no. 4 (2020): 840-860.
- Häusler, Katharina, Karin Lukas and Julia Planitzer. “Non-judicial remedies: Company-based grievance mechanisms and international arbitration.” In Human Rights in Business Removal of Barriers to Access to Justice in the European Union, edited by Juan José Álvarez Rubio and Katerina Yiannibas, 77-118. London: Routledge, 2017.
- Herbertson, Kirk, Athena Ballesteros, Isabel Munilla and Robert Goodland. “Breaking Ground
- Engaging Communities in Extractive and Infrastructure Projects.” World Resources Institute, 2009. Accessed February 10 2022. http://pdf.wri.org/breaking_ground_engaging_communities.pdf.
- Hertel, Shareen. Tethered Fates: Companies, Communities, and Rights at Stake, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
- The Human Rights Clinic at Columbia Law School & The International Human Rights Clinic at Harvard Law School. “Righting Wrongs? Barrick Gold’s Remedy Mechanism for Sexual Violence in Papua New Guinea: Key Concerns and Lessons Learned.” New York and Boston, 2015. Accessed February 10, 2022. https://hrp.law.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/FINALBARRICK.pdf.
- International Commission of Jurists. “Effective Operational-level Grievance Mechanisms.” International Commission of Jurists, Geneva, 2019. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://www.icj.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Universal-Grievance-Mechanisms-Publications-Reports-Thematic-reports-2019-ENG.pdf.
- International Council on Mining and Metals. “Human Rights in the Mining and Metals Industry: Handling and Resolving Local Level Concerns and Grievances.”International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM), London, 2009. Accessed 10 February 2022: http://www.icmm.com/page/15816/ human-rights-in-the-mining-metals-sector- handling-and-resolving-local-level-concerns- grievances.
- International Council on Mining and Metals. “Good Practice Guide: Indigenous Peoples and Mining.” International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM), London, 2010. Accessed 10 February 2022. www.icmm.com/library/indigenouspeoplesguide.
- International Council on Mining and Metals. “Handling and Resolving Local-Level Concerns and Grievances.” Human Rights in the Mining and Metal Sector, ICMM, 2019. Accessed February 10, 2022. https://www.icmm.com/website/publications/pdfs/social-performance/2019/guidance_grievance-mechanism.pdf
- International Finance Corporations. “Stakeholder Engagement: A Good Practice Handbook for Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets.” International Finance Corporation (IFC). Washington, 2007. Accessed on February 10, 2022. www1. ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/topics_ext_content/ ifc_external_corporate_site/ifc+sustainability/ publications/publications_gpn_grievances.
- International Finance Corporations. “Good Practice Note: Addressing Grievances from Project-Affected Communities: Guidance for Projects and Companies on Designing Grievance Mechanisms.” International Finance Corporation (IFC): Washington, 2009. Accessed on February 10, 2022. www1. ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/topics_ext_content/ ifc_external_corporate_site/ifc+sustainability/ publications/publications_gpn_grievances
- IPIECA. “Community Grievance Mechanisms in the Oil and Gas Industry.” Social Responsibility 2015, Accessed February 14, 2022. https://www.ipieca.org/resources/good-practice/community-grievance-mechanisms-in-the-oil-and-gas-industry/.
- International Migration Organization. “Operational guidelines for businesses on remediation of migrant-worker grievances.” IOM, Geneva. 2021. Accessed February 28, 2022. https://teachbhr.files.wordpress.com/2022/06/363be-operational-guidelines-for-businesses_228129.pdf
- The Institute for Multi-Stakeholder Initiative Integrity. “Not Fit-for-Purpose. The Grand Experiment of Multi-Stakeholder Initiatives in Corporate Accountability, Human Rights and Global Governance.” Final Report, 2020 (Chapter on access to remedy: 159-181), Accessed February 14, 2022. https://www.msi-integrity.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/MSI_Not_Fit_For_Purpose_FORWEBSITE.FINAL_.pdf.
- Kemp, Deanna and Nora Gotzmann. “Community Complaints and Grievance Mechanisms and the Australian Minerals Industry. Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining.” The University of Queensland. Discussion Paper, 2009. Accessed February 14, 2022. https://www.csrm.uq.edu.au/publications/community-complaints-and-grievance-mechanisms-and-the-australian-minerals-industry.
- Kimotho, Wangui, and Daniel Ogol. “Exploring the drivers of gendered grievance mechanisms: examples from the agribusiness, extractive and wind power sectors in Kenya.” Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 39, no. 3 (2021): 240-250.
- Kovick, David and Caroline Rees. “International Support for Effective Dispute Resolution between Companies and their Stakeholders: Assessing Needs, Interests, and Models.” CSR Initiative Working Paper 63. Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, MA, 2011. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://www.hks.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/centers/mrcbg/programs/cri/files/workingpaper_63_rees%20kovick_june%202011.pdf.
- Knuckey, Sarah, and Eleanor Jenkin. “Company-created remedy mechanisms for serious human rights abuses: a promising new frontier for the right to remedy?” The International Journal of Human Rights 19, no. 6 (2015): 801-827.
- Linder, Barbara, Karin Lukas, and Astrid Steinkellner. “The right to remedy – extrajudicial complaint mechanisms for resolving conflicts of interest between business actors and those affected by the operations.” Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, 2013. Accessed 10 February, 2022. https://bim.lbg.ac.at/sites/files/bim/Right%20to%20Remedy_Extrajudicial%20Complaint%20Mechanisms_2013.pdf.
- Lukas, Karin, Barbara Linder, Astrid Kutrzeba, and Claudia Sprenger. Corporate Accountability – The Role and Impact of Non-Judicial Grievance Mechanisms. UK: Edward Elgar, 2016.
- McDonnell, Katherine. “The Need for a Closer Look at How Power Dynamics Impede Access To Remedy in BHR.” Just Ground, 2022. Accessed February 27, 2022. https://medium.com/@katherine_23549/the-need-for-a-closer-look-at-how-power-dynamics-impede-access-to-remedy-in-bhr-f406f41ed328.
- Miller-Dawkins, May, Kate Macdonald, and Shelley Marshall. “Beyond Effectiveness Criteria: The possibilities and limits of transnational non-judicial redress mechanisms.” Non-judicial redress mechanisms report series N.1. Corporate Accountability Research, 2016. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://corporateaccountabilityresearch.net/njm-report-i-beyond-the-uns-effectiveness-criteria.
- Mining Watch Canada, & RAID Rights and Accountability in Development. “Privatized remedy and human rights: Re-thinking project-level grievance mechanisms.” Third Annual Forum on Busines and Human Rights, 2014. Accessed February 20, 2022. https://miningwatch.ca/sites/default/files/privatized_remedy_and_human_rights-un_forum-2014-12-01.pdf.
- Penn State CSR Lab.“Report and Observations on Non-State Based Non-Judicial Mechanisms on the Ground Prepared Feedback for the OHCHR Accountability and Remedy (ARP) III Report: Enhancing the effectiveness of Non-State based Grievance Mechanisms.” Pennsylvania State University, 2018. Accessed February 10, 2022. http://www.backerinlaw.com/Site/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/ARPIII_Input_PSUCSRLab.pdf.
- Scheltema, Martijn. “Assessing the Effectiveness of Remedy Outcomes of Non-judicial Grievance Mechanisms.” Dovenschmidt Quarterly 190, no. 4 (2013): 190-197.
- Scherer Andreas Georg and Guido Palazzo. “Toward a political conception of corporate responsibility: Business and society seen from a Habermasian perspective” Academy of Management Review 32, no. 4 (2007): 1096 – 1120.
- Schormair, Maximilian J.L., and Lara M. Gerlach. “Corporate Remediation of Human Rights Violations: A Restorative Justice Framework.” Journal of Business Ethics 167, no. 3 (2020): 475–493.
- Shift. “Remediation, Grievance Mechanisms and the Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights.” 2014. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://www.shiftproject.org/media/resources/docs/Shift_remediationUNGPs_2014.pdf
- de Sousa Santos Boaventura and César A Rodríguez Garavito (eds). Law, Politics, and the Subaltern in Counter-Hegemonic Globalization. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005.
- Rights and Accountability in Development. “Human Rights Violations Under Private Control:
- Acacia Mining’s Grievance Mechanism and the Denial of Rights.” Rights and Accountability in Development, London, 2019. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://www.raid-uk.org/sites/default/files/raid_report_on_private_grievance_mechanisms_final_12_june_2019.pdf.
- Rees, Caroline and David Vermijs. “Mapping Grievance Mechanisms in the Business and Human Rights Arena.” Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative Report No. 28. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2008. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://media.business-humanrights.org/media/documents/files/reports-and-materials/Rees-Vermijs-Mapping-grievance-mechanisms-Jan-2008.pdf.
- Rees, Caroline. “Mediation in Business-Related Human Rights Disputes: Objections, Opportunities and Challenges” Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative Working Paper No. 56. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2010. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://www.hks.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/centers/mrcbg/programs/cri/files/workingpaper_56_rees.pdf.
- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Operational-level grievance mechanisms fit for children.” United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 2018. Accessed 22 February, 2022. https://www.unicef.ca/sites/default/files/2019-01/UNICEF-GRIEVANCE-MECHANISMS.pdf.
- Vermijs, David. “Overview of Company–community Grievance Mechanisms.” In Dispute or Dialogue? Community perspectives on company-led grievance mechanisms, edited by Emma Wilson and Emma Blackmore, 14-47. London: IIED, 2013. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://pubs.iied.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/migrate/16529IIED.pdf.
- Worker-driven Social Responsibility Network. “What is WSR?” Tools for Practitioners Series, Worker-driven Social Responsibility Network: New York, 2017. Accessed 10 February 2022.https://wsr-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/What_is_WSR_web.pdf.
- Worker-driven Social Responsibility Network. “Auditing.” Tools for Practitioners Series, Worker-driven Social Responsibility Network: New York, 2018. Accessed 10 February 2022. https://wsr-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/WSR_BRIEF_Monitoring.pdf.
- Zagelmeyer, Stefan, Lara Bianchi, and Andrea R Shemberg. “Non-State Based Non-Judicial Grievance Mechanisms (NSBGM): An Exploratory Analysis.” The University of Manchester Alliance Manchester Business School, 2018. Accessed 22 February 2022. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Business/ARP/ManchesterStudy.pdf.
|Business and Human Rights Forum – Preventing retaliation through non-State-based grievance mechanisms (2020)||https://media.un.org/en/asset/k15/k15gf15skh|
|Presentation at the 2020 Regional Forum on Business and Human Rights for Latin America and the Caribbean (2020)||https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLVTNbf1F_w|
|2nd South-East Asia Forum on Business and Human Rights – The Need for an effective Non-Judicial Grievance Mechanism: Showcasing Examples (2021)||https://2021southasiaforumbhr.sched.com/event/iLrV/the-need-for-an-effective-non-judicial-grievance-mechanism-showcasing-examples|
|Business and Human Rights: Accountability and Remedy Project (ARP) (2022)||https://vimeo.com/showcase/9339013|
|Amfori – Supply Chain Grievance Machanism Program (2021)||https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0_P44QB09Y8|
|CSR Europe – Implementing Grievance Mechanisms for Supply Chains (2020)||https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3lqqpPTD6k|
|Earth Rights International – How can communities build systems to address grievances against corporations? (2018)||https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=268eubqnKMc|
|Human Rights in Business project (2015) – Company-based grievance mechanisms- a promising non-judicial remedy?||https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZ5wj-DJ6d8|
|Institute for Business and Human Rights – Archana Kotecha on Access to Remedy for Migrant Workers (2021)||https://voices.simplecast.com/episodes/archana-kotecha-on-access-to-remedy-for-migrant-workers|
|International Association for Impact Assessment – Effective Project Level Grievance Mechanisms in a Changing Landscape An Interactive Tool (2020)||https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R6i2kSdo3cE|
|International Commission of Jurists – ICJ’s visit to Carbones del Cerrejón in Colombia (2018)||https://www.icj.org/international-commission-of-jurists-visited-carbones-del-cerrejon-in-colombia-to-assess-the-companys-grievance-mechanism/|
|IPIECA – Community Grievance Mechanisms in the oil and gas industry (2015)||https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ozUWOTXItCE|
|Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights – Best Practices for Community Grievance Mechanisms (2022)||https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQy-ApOEffU|
[*] This bibliography may be cited as:
Antonella Angelini, “Teaching Resources: Operational-level Grievance Mechanisms,” in Teaching Business and Human Rights Handbook (Teaching Business and Human Rights Forum, 2022), https://teachbhr.org/resources/teaching-bhr-handbook/teaching-notes/operational-level-grievance-mechanisms/teaching-resources.